HMRC's Crackdown on Cryptocurrency Tax Evasion

HMRC’s Crackdown on Cryptocurrency Tax Evasion

What You Need to Know

Stay ahead in the evolving world of cryptocurrency taxation with this essential guide. It offers a clear overview of HMRC’s latest regulations, crucial for anyone involved in crypto transactions. Whether you’re an individual investor or a business, this article will help with compliance and smart financial planning in the dynamic landscape of digital currencies.


The cryptocurrency sector, known for its rapid growth and dynamic market environment, has significantly outpaced the existing tax regulations.

With an anticipated annual growth rate of about 12 percent, this burgeoning field has become a hotbed for tax evasion and underreported earnings.

In response, HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC) is taking a leading role in a global effort to curb these practices among cryptocurrency asset holders. This article aims to shed light on HMRC’s initiative and provide essential advice for individuals and businesses involved in the digital currency space

Understanding HMRC’s Initiative

HMRC’s campaign is a direct response to the challenges posed by the decentralised and somewhat opaque nature of cryptocurrencies.

The lack of clear reporting structures and the global reach of digital currencies make tax enforcement a complex task.

HMRC is focusing on enhancing transparency and ensuring that profits made from cryptocurrency transactions are reported accurately and taxed appropriately.

Advice for Cryptocurrency Holders

Stay Informed

Understand the tax obligations associated with cryptocurrency transactions. This includes capital gains tax when you sell or exchange crypto assets.

Accurate Record-Keeping

Maintain detailed records of all your cryptocurrency transactions, including dates, values, and the nature of the transactions.
Report Accurately: Declare all your crypto-related earnings in your tax returns. Failure to do so can result in penalties.

Seek Professional Advice

Tax regulations around cryptocurrencies can be complex. Consider consulting a tax professional who is knowledgeable in this area.

Consider Timing

Timing of sales or exchanges can impact your tax liabilities. Long-term holdings may be taxed differently than short-term transactions.

For Businesses

Corporate Taxes

Profits from cryptocurrency transactions are subject to corporation tax.

VAT Considerations

The VAT treatment of cryptocurrencies is a complex area and depends on the nature of the transaction.

Employee Payments

If you pay employees in cryptocurrency, it must be reported to HMRC, and appropriate taxes must be withheld.


Can businesses pay salaries in crypto?2024-01-31T14:03:43+00:00

In the UK, paying salaries in cryptocurrency is a complex issue, and there are several factors that businesses need to consider:

Legal and Regulatory Compliance: It’s essential to ensure that paying employees in cryptocurrency complies with UK employment laws and tax regulations. Salaries must meet the National Minimum Wage requirements, which are typically calculated in GBP.

Tax Implications: Both employers and employees have tax obligations. For employers, the cryptocurrency’s value in GBP at the time of payment should be reported as part of PAYE (Pay As You Earn) for Income Tax and National Insurance contributions. Employees receiving salary in cryptocurrency will be taxed based on the value of the cryptocurrency at the time it’s received.

Volatility of Cryptocurrency: The value of cryptocurrencies can be highly volatile. This volatility can impact the actual value received by the employee and can complicate matters related to meeting the minimum wage laws.

Pension Contributions: Pension contributions, which are usually calculated based on the salary in GBP, may become complex if salaries are paid in cryptocurrency.

Accounting and Reporting: Accounting for salaries paid in cryptocurrency can be challenging, as it requires conversion into GBP for accounting and tax purposes. This adds an additional layer of complexity to payroll and financial reporting.

Employee Consent: Employers must ensure that employees agree to receive their salary (or a portion of it) in cryptocurrency. This agreement should be clearly documented.

Financial Services Regulations: If a business is handling cryptocurrency on behalf of employees (e.g., converting GBP to crypto for salary payments), it may need to comply with financial services regulations, including anti-money laundering rules.

Practical Considerations: Issues like converting cryptocurrency to GBP for everyday use and the lack of widespread acceptance of cryptocurrencies for direct purchases might make such a salary arrangement impractical for some employees.

Given the complexities involved, it’s advisable for businesses considering paying salaries in cryptocurrency to seek legal and financial advice to ensure compliance with employment laws, tax regulations, and financial services regulations. Additionally, staying abreast of any changes in legislation or guidance relating to cryptocurrency is crucial, as this is a rapidly evolving area.

Are gifts in crypto taxable?2024-01-31T14:00:45+00:00

In the UK, the tax implications of gifting cryptocurrency depend on several factors, including the relationship between the giver and the recipient, and the value of the gift. Here are the key points to consider:

Capital Gains Tax (CGT): When you gift cryptocurrency to someone other than your spouse or civil partner, for tax purposes, it’s considered as a disposal of an asset. This means you might have to pay Capital Gains Tax on any gain in the value of the cryptocurrency from the time you acquired it to the time you gifted it. The value of the gift for CGT purposes is its market value at the time of the gift.

Spouse or Civil Partner Exemption: If you gift cryptocurrency to your spouse or civil partner, it’s generally not subject to CGT at the time of the gift. However, if they later dispose of the cryptocurrency, they may have to pay CGT based on the increase in value from when you originally acquired it.

Inheritance Tax (IHT): Depending on the value of the gift and the timing, it may be subject to Inheritance Tax. If you gift cryptocurrency and then live for another seven years, the gift is usually outside of your estate for IHT purposes. However, if you pass away within seven years, the gift may be subject to IHT, depending on its value and other gifts you’ve made.

Annual Exemption: Each tax year, you have an annual exemption for gifts which might apply to cryptocurrency. For the tax year 2021-22, this exemption is £3,000. Any gifts up to this amount in total in a tax year are exempt from IHT.

Gifts Out of Income: Regular gifts out of your income that don’t affect your standard of living may also be exempt from IHT.

Recipient’s Tax: The recipient of the gift doesn’t pay CGT or Income Tax at the time of the gift. However, if they later sell the cryptocurrency, they will pay CGT based on the increase in value from the time you originally acquired it.

It’s important to keep detailed records of any such gifts, including the date, the market value at the time of the gift, and whom you gifted it to. Tax laws can be complex, and it’s advisable to consult with a tax professional for personalized advice, especially in scenarios involving significant amounts or complex financial situations.

Are crypto losses tax-deductible?2024-01-31T13:43:55+00:00

In the UK, cryptocurrency losses can potentially be used to offset capital gains, thereby reducing your overall tax liability, particularly under Capital Gains Tax (CGT) rules. Here’s how it generally works:

Offsetting Against Capital Gains: If you incur a loss when you dispose of cryptocurrency (selling it for less than you bought it for, for instance), you can use this loss to reduce your capital gains from other investments. This is known as “loss relief.”

Reporting Losses: To use cryptocurrency losses to offset gains, you need to report these losses to HMRC. This can be done on your Self Assessment tax return.

Carrying Forward Losses: If your losses exceed your gains in a tax year, or if you have no gains to offset, you can carry forward the excess losses to future tax years to offset against future gains.

Calculating Losses: The calculation of your loss will be based on the difference between what you paid for the cryptocurrency and its value when you disposed of it, minus any allowable costs like transaction fees.

Bed and Breakfasting Rule: The UK has specific rules to prevent ‘bed and breakfasting’ – selling assets at a loss and quickly re-purchasing them to realise a capital loss. If you re-acquire the same cryptocurrency within 30 days of selling it at a loss, special rules apply which might affect your ability to claim loss relief.

Documentation and Records: Keeping accurate records of all your transactions, values, dates, and associated costs is crucial for correctly calculating any losses and reporting them to HMRC.

It’s important to remember that tax laws are complex and subject to change. The treatment of cryptocurrency for tax purposes continues to evolve. Therefore, it’s always advisable to seek guidance from a qualified tax professional, especially one familiar with the taxation of cryptocurrencies, to ensure compliance and to make the most of any available tax relief.

What records should I keep for tax purposes on crypto?2024-01-31T13:41:30+00:00

In the UK, for tax purposes, it is essential to maintain comprehensive and accurate records of all your cryptocurrency transactions. These records are crucial for correctly calculating any potential tax liabilities, such as Capital Gains Tax or Income Tax. Here’s what you should keep track of:

Transaction Dates: Note the dates on which you acquired or disposed of the cryptocurrency.

Values in Pounds Sterling: For each transaction, record the value in GBP at the time of the transaction. This includes purchase prices, sale prices, or the market value at the time of an exchange.

Transaction Receipts: Keep all receipts or records of your cryptocurrency transactions, such as broker statements, trading logs, or digital wallet records.

Type of Cryptocurrency: Document the specific type or name of the cryptocurrency involved in each transaction.

Nature of Transaction: Note whether each transaction was a purchase, sale, exchange, or gift.

Wallet Addresses: It may be useful to record the wallet addresses used for transactions, especially for identification purposes.

Associated Costs: Record any costs incurred for each transaction, like transaction fees or brokerage fees. These can often be deducted from capital gains to determine the net gain.

Year-End Cryptocurrency Holdings: At the end of each tax year, record the quantity and value of all your cryptocurrency holdings.

Mining or Business-Related Financial Statements: If you’re involved in cryptocurrency mining or business activities, keep detailed financial records, including income, expenses, and any assets.

Lost or Stolen Cryptocurrency: Maintain records of any cryptocurrency that is lost or stolen, including the circumstances of the loss or theft.

Keeping these records will assist in accurately calculating any tax liabilities and will be invaluable in case of an enquiry or audit by HMRC. Tax regulations can be complex and change over time, so it’s advisable to consult with a tax professional who is knowledgeable about cryptocurrency for specific advice.

Can I be taxed on crypto if I don’t convert it to cash?2024-01-31T13:37:53+00:00

Yes, in many jurisdictions, including the UK, you can be taxed on cryptocurrency transactions even if you don’t convert the crypto into cash. The tax liability doesn’t necessarily depend on converting cryptocurrency into fiat currency (like pounds sterling). Instead, it often arises from the realisation of a gain, which can occur in several ways:

Trading One Cryptocurrency for Another: If you exchange one cryptocurrency for another, you might incur a capital gains tax liability. This is because you are effectively ‘disposing’ of one asset (the cryptocurrency you give away) and acquiring another. The gain or loss for tax purposes is calculated based on the increase or decrease in value of the cryptocurrency you dispose of, from the time you acquired it to the time of the trade.

Using Cryptocurrency to Purchase Goods or Services: If you use cryptocurrency to buy goods or services, this can also be considered a disposal, potentially resulting in a capital gains tax event. The gain or loss would be calculated based on the value of the cryptocurrency at the time of the transaction compared to when you initially acquired it.

Gifting Cryptocurrency: Depending on the amount and whom you gift it to (excluding spouses or civil partners), gifting cryptocurrency can trigger a capital gains tax event.

It’s important to note that simply holding cryptocurrency (i.e., not engaging in any transactions or disposals) does not typically trigger a tax liability. It’s the disposal or transaction involving the cryptocurrency that can create a taxable event.

Tax laws and regulations regarding cryptocurrency can vary greatly depending on the country and are subject to change. Therefore, it’s advisable to consult with a tax professional who is knowledgeable about the current cryptocurrency tax laws in your jurisdiction to get accurate and personalised advice.

How does HMRC know about my cryptocurrency?2024-01-31T13:34:41+00:00

HMRC (Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs) in the UK has several methods to gather information about individuals’ cryptocurrency holdings and transactions. As the use of cryptocurrencies has grown, so have HMRC’s efforts to track and tax these assets. Here’s how HMRC might know about your cryptocurrency activities:

Exchange Information Requests: HMRC has been known to request information from cryptocurrency exchanges. Many exchanges, especially those that operate within the UK or have UK clients, are legally obliged to share information with tax authorities when requested. This can include transaction histories and customer details.

International Cooperation: HMRC is part of various international tax information-sharing agreements, such as the Common Reporting Standard (CRS). Through these agreements, tax authorities in different countries exchange financial account information. This includes information related to cryptocurrency in some cases.

Blockchain Analysis: Cryptocurrencies operate on public ledgers (blockchains), which record all transactions. While these transactions are pseudonymous, advanced blockchain analysis tools can sometimes trace transactions back to individuals, especially when transactions involve regulated financial institutions.

Data from Third Parties: Information about your cryptocurrency transactions could come from third parties, such as banks or other financial institutions, especially if you have transferred funds to or from a cryptocurrency exchange.

Self-Declaration: If you voluntarily declare cryptocurrency assets and transactions on your tax returns, HMRC will become aware of them through your self-assessment.

Whistleblowers and Tip-offs: Like with other types of income or assets, HMRC may receive information from whistleblowers or anonymous tips.

Connect Data Analysis System: HMRC uses a sophisticated data analysis system called Connect, which draws on vast amounts of data from various government and public sources to identify individuals who may not have declared their income correctly, including income or gains from cryptocurrencies.

HMRC is increasingly focusing on hidden or undeclared cryptocurrency assets as part of their broader effort to combat tax evasion. It’s important to remember that tax evasion is illegal and can result in significant penalties or legal action. If you have undeclared cryptocurrency assets or gains, it’s advisable to consult with a tax professional to understand your obligations and potentially disclose those assets voluntarily to avoid harsher penalties.

Do I need to pay tax on cryptocurrency?2024-01-31T13:28:00+00:00

UK, individuals and entities are required to pay taxes on cryptocurrency transactions. However, the specific tax obligations can vary depending on the country and the nature of the transactions. Here’s a general overview for the UK:

Capital Gains Tax (CGT): In the UK, if you sell cryptocurrency for more than you purchased it for, you are likely to be liable for Capital Gains Tax on the profit. This includes exchanging cryptocurrency for another cryptocurrency, using it to pay for goods or services, or giving it away to someone other than a spouse or civil partner.

Income Tax and National Insurance Contributions: If you receive cryptocurrency from mining, airdrops, or as earnings from an employer, it could be subject to Income Tax and National Insurance contributions.

VAT: The value-added tax treatment of cryptocurrencies is a complex area. Generally, VAT is not due on the value of the cryptocurrencies themselves when they are used in transactions, but it may apply to goods and services sold in exchange for cryptocurrency.

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In Conclusion

The evolving landscape of cryptocurrency taxation demands vigilance and compliance from both individual investors and businesses.
With HMRC intensifying its efforts to clamp down on tax evasion in the crypto space, understanding and adhering to tax laws is more crucial than ever.

By maintaining accurate records, reporting all transactions, and seeking professional advice when necessary, you can navigate this complex domain effectively, ensuring compliance and potentially mitigating tax burdens.

Remember: The field of cryptocurrency taxation is continually evolving. It’s vital to stay updated with the latest HMRC guidelines and tax laws to remain compliant and avoid any legal or financial complications.

Further Reading

For more detailed information about cryptocurrency taxation in the UK and HMRC’s guidelines, you can refer to several helpful resources:

HMRC Guidance on Selling Crypto Assets

This page provides detailed information about when and how you need to pay tax when disposing of crypto assets like cryptocurrency. It covers scenarios such as selling, exchanging, or gifting your tokens and explains how to calculate your gains for tax purposes. You can find this guidance on the GOV.UK website.

Tax Return Reminder for Crypto Asset Users

HMRC has published a reminder for individuals dealing in crypto assets to check if they need to do a Self Assessment tax return.

It explains the circumstances under which you might need to declare income or gains from crypto assets and provides the deadline for completing tax returns.

This information is particularly useful for those new to dealing with crypto asset taxation. Further details can be found on GOV.UK.

HMRC Crypto Assets Manual

This is a comprehensive resource that covers the tax treatment of crypto assets. It includes sections dedicated to individuals, businesses, and specific topics like Decentralised Finance and compliance.

This manual is a valuable resource for both individuals and businesses seeking detailed information on various aspects of crypto asset taxation. The manual can be accessed on GOV.UK.

These resources provide a thorough understanding of the tax implications of dealing with crypto assets and the necessary steps to ensure compliance with HMRC regulations.

Whether you’re an individual investor or a business, these guides can help navigate the complexities of crypto taxation in the UK.

If you need some help and tax advice, get in touch.

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